Risk Analysis and Management in Engineering Projects. The sub-project manager might be an individual operator or a department head. Sec- ond, it establishes credibility and opens communication channels. Progress is assessed periodically, at least once a year, when managers evaluate existing efforts and make plans for new projects to be undertaken during the next period, so that progress is encouraged. On the surface, training simply provides the skills that people need in order to carry out the new tasks they might be assigned such as Statistical Process Control or Just-in-Time production.

There is a shared understanding that improvement may become more difficult as time goes on, but that at each step on the path, new opportunities will show themselves somehow and fuel sustained improvement. In the longer term, this ap- proach will generate continuous improving performance. Each sub-project is directed towards achieving the prevailing goal, for example, responsiveness, conformance quality, or low cost. Mere nominal reorganization, particularly at the shop-floor level is unlikely to produce good results in the long-term. This is very different from selecting a sub-project because it is an easy thing to do.

Phys- ical measures tend to be more clearly and broadly understood than financial mea- sures, which may lose credibility because they reflect different cost structures and engender wtudy about how the figures are calculated and what they mean. Features of successful improvement initiatives Clear targets and common understanding of direction.

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People in the plant will have lived through a series of improve- ment schemes often for other performance dimensions and the new initiative ap- pears to be more of the same to them. The welding quality project went ahead on this basis. Management of Engineering Innovation in the New Century.

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Team initiatives involve the assembly and development B. On the basis of a benchmarking study, Daewoo Shipbuilding and Heavy Ma- chinery [14] classed themselves as the fastest improving shipyard in the world.


At great expense, thousands of engineers throughout the world developed robots able to pick individual objects from a cluttered floor, or wrote software that would supposedly slice through the complexity of managing a job-shop by controlling every- thing that happened within it.

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Dynamic Manufactur- ing, Free Press. After the fact, it be- came clear that this plant had been providing a wide range of important services to the network, from new product development to the manufacture of spare parts. They subject their plants to a series of psychologically exhausting schemes though the new managers or consultants that bring them may see them as new and exciting. New Processes and Tools. Continual benchmarking of this sort serves to expose an organization to compar- ison with leaders in various operations practices.

Daewoo Shipbuilding and Heavy Machinery: Improvement Processes In each of the above focus arenas, a number of improvement process elements may be deployed. With such systems widely available, firms lost some of their ability to differentiate themselves from their competitors.

Quality Circles, an improvement fad in the lates, provides a good example of an unsustainable concept. The prime difficulty is that, because of the initial effort put into building long-term im- provement opportunities, results may be slow at first. At the foundation of such development is the individual operating unit. Compelling motivation and energy.

Sus- tainability, continuous improvement over time, depends upon the underlying view of how improvement is achieved implicit in the actions of stuudy managers and operators. A progressive shop-floor learning project to control the way in which welding struc- tures distorted ultimately allowed the yard to install propellers in parallel with other components, rather than after distortion had settled down, saving valuable weeks dkvision factory time.

The Improvement Map The real art of operations management shows itself in the synthesis of approaches that are used together to develop a powerful improvement strategy.


The steady stream and changing nature of these meth- ods and techniques vividly illustrate the evolution of the role stkdy operations duvision corporations, and provide a window of insight into the general practical problems of building new operational capabilities. Team-based activities provide an opportunity for a company to make a bold leap in its manufacturing or operating capabilities.

By using these selection criteria, firms ensure that improvement occurs continu- ously, but also proactively provide opportunities for further improvement.

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In the longer term, this ap- proach will generate continuous improving performance. Although many networks be- came leaner and meaner, others lost valuable technical capabilities and good managers. Hamermesh and Evelyn T. The first, a crisis of some sort whether it is self-evident or made clear through other means such as external comparisons is an important mechanism from which improvement can draw the critical energy to get moving.

Mere nominal reorganization, particularly at the shop-floor level is unlikely to produce good results in the long-term.

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At studj and inconveniently vague level for the mechanis- tic of mind it is a community of people. While the quality of welding was not a major prob- lem, a progressive improvement in welding quality would allow the removal of entire assembly processes in subsequent years, thus providing a postponed, but large jump in productivity in the long-term.

Knowledge Development and Capture. At their worst, they be- came fuzzy clouds of semantic overkill—consultant-fuelled fashions against which people found it difficult to argue, yet which failed to provide a clear path and concrete steps for improvement.

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